As written in documentation the reduce() method applies a function against an accumulator and each value of the array (from left-to-right) to reduce it to a single value.


reduce() function accepts 2 parameters (M: mandatory, O: optional):

  • (M) a callback reducer function to be applied that deals with a pair of previous (result of previous computation) and next element until end of the list.
  • (O) an initial value to be used as the first argument to the first call of the callback.

So let’s see a common usage and later a more sophisticated one.

Common usage (accumulation, concatenation)

We are on Amazon website (prices in $) and our caddy is quite full, let’s compute total.

// my current amazon caddy purchases
var items = [{price: 10}, {price: 120}, {price: 1000}];

// our reducer function
var reducer = function add(sumSoFar, item) { return sumSoFar + item.price; };

// do the job
var total = items.reduce(reducer, 0);

console.log(total); // 1130

Optional reduce function parameter was primitive integer type 0 in that first case, but it could have been an Object, an Array…instead of a primitive type, but we will see that later.

Now, cool I received a discount coupon of 20$.

var total = items.reduce(reducer,-20);

console.log(total); // 1110

Advanced usage (combination)

This second usage example is inspired by Redux combineReducers function source.

Idea behind is to separate reducer function into separate individual functions and at the end compute a new single big reducer function.

To illustrate this, let’s create a single object literal with some reducers function able to compute total prices in different currency $, €…

var reducers = {
  totalInDollar: function(state, item) {
    // specific statements...
    return state.dollars += item.price;
  totalInEuros : function(state, item) {
    return state.euros += item.price * 0.897424392;
  totalInPounds : function(state, item) {
    return state.pounds += item.price * 0.692688671;
  totalInYen : function(state, item) {
    return state.yens += item.price * 113.852;
  // more...

Then, we create a new swiss knife function

  • responsible for applying each partial reduce functions.
  • that will return a new callback reducer function
var combineTotalPriceReducers = function(reducers) {
  return function(state, item) {
    return Object.keys(reducers).reduce(
      function(nextState, key) {
        reducers[key](state, item);
        return state;

Now let’s see how using it.

var bigTotalPriceReducer = combineTotalPriceReducers(reducers);

var initialState = {dollars: 0, euros:0, yens: 0, pounds: 0};

var totals = items.reduce(bigTotalPriceReducer, initialState);


Object {dollars: 1130, euros: 1015.11531904, yens: 127524.24, pounds: 785.81131152}

I hope this approach can give you another idea of using reduce() function for your own needs.

Your reduce function could handle an history of each computation by instance as it is done in Ramdajs with scan function

JSFiddle to play with